During the long period of Ottoman rule, institutions of tertiary education were considered to be the same as Islamic Schools (madrasas; Medreseler). However, during the phase of modernisation, these institutions did not fulfil any functions. Institutions of tertiary education comparable to those in Europe were first established during the Tanzimat period (= enlightenment in the Ottoman Empire). The Darülfünun (= university), which opened in 1863, was, in terms of its philosophy, programme, organisation and personnel structure, an independent tertiary institution. Nevertheless, it was repeatedly closed and reopened. Extra-mural interference continued throughout this period.